之前就對韓國憲法法院的建築、網站與識別標誌(藍色大門)、判決有一些基本研究與興趣,今天早上有機會聆聽韓國憲法法院大法官李東洽(Justice Lee, Dong-Heub)的演講,針對韓國憲法法院建構與23年來的運作有一些基本瞭解。

韓國憲法法院的裁判有一些有趣的發展,例如日前憲法法院認為軍隊禁止同性戀者服役並不違憲,但對韓國刑法典第304條使人誤以締結婚姻關係為目的或其他詐術性交罪(相當於我國刑法第229條)之處罰,過度侵害成年男性的性自主權及隱私權而宣告違憲(2008 Hun-Ba 58)。

這裡會令人好奇韓國的憲法文化與社會互動。比如說同性戀議題,在韓國法律層面非常保守,但同志電視劇、電影卻有非常自由、開放的發展;又如上開判決,是否反映韓國某種男女間性權力關係的社會現實?又,韓國今年九月在釜山主辦亞洲憲法法院協會籌備會議,也可以發現韓國憲法法院積極發揮其國際影響力的企圖(比如說憲法法院的判決英文化程度令人印象深刻)。

韓國憲法法院英文網站:http://english.ccourt.go.kr/

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上開詐術性交罪違憲判決英文翻譯:

Sexual Intercourse under Pretence of Marriage Case

<2008 Hun-Ba 58, 2009 Hun-Ba 191(Consolidated), November 26, 2009>

In this case, the Constitutional Court held unconstitutional the portion of Article 304 of the Criminal Act which provides that ‘a person who induces a woman who is not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage,’ on the grounds that it infringes on men’s right to sexual self-determination, right to private secrecy and freedom of privacy in violation of the principle against excessive restriction.

【Background of the Case】

Complainants were respectively convicted of tricking a woman not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse by falsely agreeing to tie the knot in violation of Article 304 of the Criminal Act. According to Article 304 of the Criminal Act, a person who induces a female who is not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage or through other fraudulent means (hereinafter the “engagement fraud”), shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than two years or by a fine not exceeding five million won. Regarding this, the complainants respectively filed a constitutional complaint, arguing that the portion of ‘a person who induces a woman who is not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage’ (hereinafter, the “Instant Provision”) infringes on their fundamental rights. The text of the Instant Provision is as follows:

【Provision at Issue】

Criminal Act

Article 34 (Sexual Intercourse under Pretence of Marriage)

A person who induces a female who is not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage or through other fraudulent means, shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than two years or by a fine not exceeding five million won.

【Summary of the Decision】

In an opinion of 6 (unconstitutional): 3 (constitutional, including supplementary opinion by one justice), the Constitutional Court held the Instant Provision violates the Constitution. The summary of decision is as follows:

I. Majority Opinion by Six Justices

The legislative purpose of the Instant Provision cannot be regarded legitimate for the following reasons: First, it is totally within the realm of privacy for a man to have a sexual relationship with a female partner, against which the state’s interference should be as minimum as possible if no coercion or violence is involved. Moreover, such a relationship usually has a tendency to be exaggerated. Therefore, the Criminal Act does not punish a pre-marital sex relationship, and in this regard, there is also no reason to punish the ordinary conduct of inducing a partner into a pre-marital sex relationship. Next, if a woman, after voluntarily deciding to have a pre-marital sex relationship with a man who demands it, later asks the court to punish him demanding the decision was made by mistake, that is an act of denying her own right to sexual self-determination. Also, under the Instant Provision, the subject of protection is limited to women who have no habit of acting obscenely while all other women who have sexual relationships with multiple partners are stigmatized as ‘woman who are prone to obscene act’ and excluded from the protection, which ends up forcing sexual ideology based on patriarchy and moralism on women. In this regard, the Instant Provision not only runs afoul of the state’s constitutional duty to create and maintain a gender equal society (Article 36, Section 1 of the Constitution), but also denies women’s right to self-determination regarding sexual activity under the guise of protecting women, by treating them as not being mature enough to have a capacity to voluntarily make such a decision. Therefore, the right to sexual self-determination to be protected by the Instant Provision goes against women’s dignity and value.

As our society has gone through changes in public legal awareness regarding sex and marriage, there seems no pressing need to provide criminal protection for a woman who mistakenly enters into a pre-marital sex relationship with a male partner. It is in the heart of people’s privacy to have any kind of sexual or romantic relationships whatsoever and such relationships should be regulated by law only when the private relationships are known to the public and clearly proven to exert an evil influence on society. Also, in modern criminal jurisprudence, there is a growing tendency to avoid criminalizing activities related to people’s private life. And the crime of engagement fraud has been abolished in many countries and, for example, Japan, Germany and France have no statutory provision that stipulates such a crime. Also, such criminal punishment, while losing its effectiveness as a penalty imposed by the state, increasingly brings about side effects. Given all the aforementioned aspects, criminally punishing a person who induces a woman into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage fails to follow the rule of appropriateness of means and the rule of the least restrictive means to achieve the legislative purpose.

The Instant Provision excessively restricts men’s fundamental rights such as the right to sexual self-determination, the right to private secrecy and the freedom of privacy, by subjecting sexual relationships within the zone of privacy to criminal punishment. But the public interest of protecting a woman without habit of acting obscenely who enters into sexual intercourse with a cause mistakenly perceived by her, which drastically loses its effectiveness in this modern society, does not seem to outweigh the importance of the infringed fundamental rights. In this regard, it fails to strike balance between legal interests.

Therefore, the Instant Provision goes against the Constitution, as it excessively restricts men’s right to sexual self-determination, right to private secrecy and freedom of privacy in violation of the rule against excessive restriction stipulated in Article 37, Section 2 of the Constitution.

II. Opinion of Constitutionality by Three Justices

Protection under the Instant Provision extends exclusively to women because it is perceived by the legislators that when a woman induces a man into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage, the man’s right to sexual self-determination is less likely to be infringed. Considering the physical difference and ethical, emotional perception gap toward sexual intercourse between men and women, it is hard to conclude that the legislative decision is based on illegitimate gender discrimination, imposes the old patriarchal value of chastity or forces women to keep virginity before marriage.

Having sexual intercourse with a female partner under pretence of marriage is a conduct that infringes other people’s legal interest, going beyond the acceptable boundary of the right to self-determination. Therefore, the Instant Provision cannot be regarded as infringing on the right to sexual self-determination of a man who induces a female not prone to an obscene act into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage. Also, a man’s conduct of lying to a woman about marriage without intention to do so does not fall into the category of privacy to be protected by Article 17 of the Constitution. Therefore, as long as a man engages in a wrongful conduct of inducing a woman into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage, in spite of the fact that it is the woman’s fault for failing to recognize her partner is telling a lie, it is still required to impose criminal punishment on such a conduct.

When a woman files a charge against a man for allegedly deceiving her into having sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage, such a case should be regarded as becoming an issue of disturbing social order, beyond the zone of privacy and inherent limitation of fundamental rights. In this stage, therefore, the need to maintain social order is far more important than the need to protect private life of the parties to the case. Also, when an individual’s private life infringes upon other’s legal interests, such infringement becomes an issue outside the zone of privacy and inherent limitation of fundamental rights and therefore, such a case should be considered beyond the coverage of protection under Article 17 of the Constitution within this limit. In this regard, punishing a man who commits a crime of engagement fraud does not seem to fail to strike balance between legal interests.

As the Instant Provision is enacted to provide punishment only for a case where a clear causal relationship between the conduct of having sexual intercourse under pretense of marriage and the consent to sexual intercourse and the sexual intercourse is established, thereby being legitimate in its purpose, it cannot be considered as violating the principle of equality.

III. Supplementary Opinion to the Opinion of Constitutionality by One Justice

The Instant Provision is not meant to punish the private conduct of sexual intercourse itself, but rather, it is related to a case where a woman, who is damaged by deception or fraud committed by her male partner, actively requests the court to review the case and punish the male partner (engagement fraud is a crime subject to victim’s complaint). Therefore, this is simply not a case of relationship of utmost intimacy between man and woman within the zone of privacy any more, but a case in which state intervention can be allowed.

It is still not safe to say that the entire women in our society now do not need constitutional or legal protection and consideration any more. Rather, as we understand that there are still a small number of women who need to get constitutional or legal protection and consideration in our society as ever, it seems too early to repeal the Instant Provision at this point of time.

The Instant Provision only punishes the anti-social conduct of a man who deceives a woman into sexual intercourse under pretence of marriage without true intention to do so, considering her as a mere object to satisfy sensual pleasure. Therefore, simply recognizing the Instant Provision to infringe on the man’s right to sexual self-determination, without consideration of the aforementioned aspect, will result in acknowledging the freedom of deception, fraud or defraudation in sexual relationship, which is clearly unjustifiable and unacceptable.

【Related Case】

As for the Constitutional Court Decision of 99Hun-Ba40, 2002Hun-Ba50 (consolidated) that declared Article 304 of the Criminal Act to be constitutional on October 31, 2002, is hereby altered inasmuch as it conflicts with the Holding of this decision.

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軍中同性性行為處罰合憲判決:http://www.ccourt.go.kr/home/iframe/storybookinfo_view02.jsp?board_id=320&comm_id=M0004&media_id=261424765&pg=1&list_type=04&gubun=1

軍中同性性行為處罰合憲判決相關英文報導:

Court upholds ban on gays in military

Punishing homosexual soldiers constitutional






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  • 訪客
  • 只有語言企圖與世界接軌
    但觀念不是

    另外 印象中以前有看過一種說法 越是禁忌 越是通俗劇或小說的賣點(例如愛情小說的種種關卡) 因為這可以鋪陳故事
    或許可以解釋韓國電影及電視內容 與法律判決的落差吧
  • 這或許需要更多對於韓國社會文化的認識、瞭解與事實證據,才能掌握韓國社會大眾對於這些議題的立場;持平而論,單純就電影與電視劇反映出同志社群的現實需求(例如美麗人生的同性婚姻)與多元樣貌(如去年短片100度C的聽障同志,而其中也赤裸裸地呈現韓國社會對於男同性戀者的強烈仇視敵意),至少韓國人還懂得挑戰禁忌,而臺灣電影或電視劇連這種賣點都不願意或不敢用啊。

    narzissmus 於 2011/11/17 09:12 回覆

  • 范胖胖
  • 您好:我在您的"無名小站"部落格中 有看到一篇"同居伴侶法"的義大利文細則。
    不知道您那邊是否有中文版的翻譯文,因為我們要打一場辯論賽,有關尊重同志的議題,希望您可以幫個忙!! 真的很需要您的幫忙!! 不知道您如果有的話,是否可以與我們共享!! 如果有的話 "麻煩與我聯繫!!!! 謝謝您 :)
    我的E-Mail : f654030@hotmail.com 麻煩您了 !!
  • 很抱歉,就我所知,並無中文翻譯。

    narzissmus 於 2011/11/17 09:03 回覆

  • 范胖胖
  • 好 謝謝你 !! 那我了解了 !! 3QQ唷 !!
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